We power the world's experts in smoke, vapor, and addiction research

Gram technology is behind some of the most rigorous aerosol research, ranging from laboratory studies focused on clinical pharmacology, toxicology, neuroscience, behavioral sciences, physiological models, and much more.

Check out the latest studies that feature Gram

University of San Francisco Medical Center

...the tobacco industry has made a major effort to introduce their so-called heat-not-burn tobacco products to consumers as reduced-risk products...

...this is the first study of the effects of IQOS aerosol on vascular endothelial function in a physiological model.

Matthew Springer and his team used the Gram universal vaping machine to consistently expose rats to doses of either IQOS aerosol, cigarette smoke, or clean air. They found that the Philip Morris heat-not-burn (HNB) product IQOS actually caused longer-lived elevations of serum nicotine in the rats compared to rats exposed to Marlboro Red cigarette smoke.

Noting that the study was limited to anesthetized rats, authors caution that HNB products like IQOS do not necessarily avoid the adverse cardiovascular effects associated with smoking traditional cigarettes.

Watch video of the vaping machine in action


University of Otago, New Zealand

...“smart” technology could investigate the speed, consistency, and intensity of ENDS initiation and ascertain whether specific day-by-day patterns are associated with cessation outcomes...

...this information could inform clinically relevant guidance to help smokers more quickly and completely transition from smoking to exclusive ENDS use...

Authors Janet Hoek and Mei-Ling Blank led an eight-week-long observational study on a pool of 15 human research subjects, all of whom were daily smokers who wanted to quit.

Using an early prototype of the Gram smart vaporizer, this University research team tracked subjects' real world vaporizer usage alongside their self-reported tobacco consumption. They observed diverse usage patterns and analyzed the corresponding reduction in number of cigarettes consumed.

While researchers noted serious limitations on the study - especially with respect to the performance of Gram's early prototype - they recommended additional studies with larger sample sizes and longer study periods in order to better understand usage patterns and their impact on cessation outcomes.

See the complete list of peer-reviewed publications featuring Gram


University of San Francisco
General Hospital

I don’t think the results can get much better than this.

In the esteemed clinical pharmacology lab led by Neil Benowitz, analytical chemist Chris Havel of UCSFGH used the Gram universal vaping machine to smoke more than 700 reference cigarettes. The Total Particulate Matter (or "TPM") is the measured output yield of the smoked cigarettes and represents the precise mass that would be delivered to an exposure system.

Chris found the TPM output of Gram’s system matches the reference standards perfectly, at 100% and 101% of the published reference standards.

See the complete list of studies facilitated by Gram technology