Gram technology powers the world's experts in aerosol research & facilitates product testing for private industry

Gram technology is behind some of the most rigorous aerosol research, ranging from laboratory studies focused on clinical pharmacology, toxicology, neuroscience, behavioral sciences, physiological models, and much more.

Scroll down to see some of the studies that feature Gram, or click to review all publications featuring Gram

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Featured studies using Gram technology

University of San Francisco
Cardiovascular Research Institute

...VEA [Vitamin E Acetate] causes dose-dependent lung injury...

...our data strengthen the conclusion that VEA plays a causal role in this syndrome of acute respiratory failure clinically recognized as vaping associated lung injury.

Dr Jeffrey Gotts, Shotaro Matsumoto, and Michael Matthay used the Gram universal vaping machine in the first study ever to report the effects of aerosolized vitamin E acetate on human lung tissue.

This research group filled ceramic vaporizer cartridges that are commonly used in the cannabis industry with vitamin E. They then exposed adult mice and various cell cultures to vapor generated under conditions that reflect real-world use of these products.

Authors demonstrated dose-dependent toxicity of aerosolized vitamin E with in vivo (adult mice) and in vitro (human lung cell cultures) experiments, and noted the similarity in response between the two models. The same toxicity was not observed in mice exposed to nicotine-containing e-liquids that lacked vitamin E content, confirming an important causal role of aerosolized vitamin E in the vaping crisis.

Watch video of the vaping machine in action


University of Otago, New Zealand

...“smart” technology could investigate the speed, consistency, and intensity of ENDS initiation and ascertain whether specific day-by-day patterns are associated with cessation outcomes...

...this information could inform clinically relevant guidance to help smokers more quickly and completely transition from smoking to exclusive ENDS use...

Authors Janet Hoek and Mei-Ling Blank led an eight-week-long observational study on a pool of 15 human research subjects, all of whom were daily smokers who wanted to quit.

Using an early prototype of the Gram smart vaporizer, this University research team tracked subjects' real world vaporizer usage alongside their self-reported tobacco consumption. They observed diverse usage patterns and analyzed the corresponding reduction in number of cigarettes consumed.

While researchers noted serious limitations on the study - especially with respect to the performance of Gram's early prototype - they recommended additional studies with larger sample sizes and longer study periods in order to better understand usage patterns and their impact on cessation outcomes.

See the complete list of peer-reviewed publications featuring Gram


University of San Francisco
General Hospital

I don’t think the results can get much better than this.

In the renowned clinical pharmacology lab led by Neil Benowitz, analytical chemist Chris Havel of UCSFGH used the Gram universal vaping machine to smoke more than 700 reference tobacco cigarettes.

The Total Particulate Matter (or "TPM") of a smoke-generation system is the measured output yield of the smoked cigarettes and represents the precise mass that would be delivered to an exposure system. Chris found the TPM output of Gram’s system matches the reference standards perfectly, at 100% and 101% of the published reference standards.

See the complete list of studies facilitated by Gram technology